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Topic: menus for a UserInterface

user interface > Group: graphical user interface


--related--
graphical user interface
abbreviated input
keystroke shortcuts as a UserInterface
choice points for a user interface
command-line as a UserInterface
dial as a user interface
ease of learning
fisheye views in the user interface
gestural interfaces and marker menus
hypertext nodes made of names
implementation of user interfaces
information retrieval by following links
mouse as the user interface
mouse buttons
prompted input
property sheets for objects
training wheels for the user interface

--referenced--
Thesa - a thesaurus of ideas
topics f-m

Summary

Menus are displayed lists of possible choices for the user. Menus provide on-line documentation, which is often directly executable. Menus may show possible selections for ambiguous commands. Typically as a user changes context, the menu changes. For instance UCSD's Pascal system has separate menus for file management and editing. Since user's actions are seldom limited to one context, context dependent menus may require frequent context changes. These non-productive actions are annoying to frequent users. An alternative is menu display of frequent commands with all commands simultaneously available. Executing a command may change the menu, but it doesn't change the available commands. Then commonly used commands can be quickly executed and all commands can be used without changing context. (cbb 5/80)
Subtopic: users prefer menus -- self-documenting up

Quote: the menu shows all possible operations on displayed icons; self-teaching, avoids remembering options [smitDC6_1975]
Quote: in a museum, the embedded menus of Hyperties used for two-thirds of all selections [marcG1_1988]
Quote: users prefer menus with a medium to large numbers of choices [kerrST_1986]

Subtopic: survey up

Quote: survey of visual menu techniques for command menus; menu properties, methods for quality evaluation, predictive models, and menu optimization [bailG10_2016]

Subtopic: hierarchical menu up

Quote: best to minimize depth of menu trees by using 8-9 selections at each level [kigeJI2_1984]
Quote: for known-item selection, hierarchical menus are faster than fisheye menus; no difference for browsing [hornK8_2007]

Subtopic: dynamic menus up

Quote: use split menus to move most frequent selections to the top; 17 to 58% faster [searA3_1994]
Quote: significantly more time was spent searching the display when all alternatives were presented vs. permissible alternatives [bakeJD6_1966]
Quote: dynamic menus move most frequent item to top; slowed down novices, no improvement after experience, strongly disliked [mitcJ4_1989]
Quote: the initial menu contains the currently most useful commands; e.g., whether user has unseen notices [palmJ9_1979]

Subtopic: context menu up

Quote: a breadcrumb bar shows the bubble's package and class names with a drop down list of methods and variables [bragA5_2010]
Quote: using pop-up menus instead of dialogue-boxes saved 11 seconds for certain telephone queries; estimated savings of $1.6 million in two years [nielJ11_1993]
Quote: can select an object and then select a menu choice; a context-dependent pop-up menu is more direct [smitRB10_1995]
Quote: can use different cursors such as a paint bucket; requires a selection to change modes; a pop-up menu is more direct [smitRB10_1995]

Subtopic: contextual menu up

Quote: with OLE's editing in place, you click on a graph for graph editing commands and click on text for text editing; only the menu changes [seymJ12_1993]

Subtopic: Macintosh-style menus up

Quote: even on large monitors, bar menus are faster than the best walking menu [walkN4_1990]
Quote: pull-down menus on a menu bar provides a large target with an infinite height; allows fast access [tognB_1992]
Quote: impenetrable borders and expanding target areas facilitate menu selection [walkN4_1990]
Quote: the Macintosh menu bar is about twice as fast as the Windows task bar; widgets on the border should extend to infinity [accoJ4_2002]
Quote: Apple menu bar at top of screen has infinite height; 4-10x faster than Windows menu bar on line 2 [accoJ4_2002]

Subtopic: standard menu up

Quote: Star has universally applicable commands: move, copy, delete, show/copy properties, again, undo, and help [smitDC4_1982]

Subtopic: menu border up

Quote: use borders for fast access to the first and last item of a pop-up menu; leave the sides open for canceling the operation [tognB_1992]

Subtopic: window palettes vs. menus up

Quote: use window palettes for quick access instead of pull-down menus [yankN1_1988]

Subtopic: command lists up

Quote: Oberon menus are commands listed in viewer headers; take their viewer as argument [wirtN9_1989]
Quote: Oberon tools are short texts or graphics containing frequently-used commands; users can edit like any text [wirtN9_1989]
Quote: use any text as commands; match spelling in menu [raskJ_2000]

Subtopic: Smalltalk menus up

Quote: to send a message in Smalltalk either make a menu selection or execute a statement [teslL8_1981]
Quote: if mouse used with Smalltalk, then menus are hidden until a button is pressed; command executed on releasing the button [teslL8_1981]
Quote: Lisa has a menu title bar; selection with a mouse, applies the command to the selected object [willG2_1983]
Quote: select a menu option by typing its entry; non-matches remove first character, so change option by typing new entry [thimH12_1978]

Subtopic: abbreviated menu items up

Quote: can abbreviate menu items just like other names; the first menu item is the default [palmJ9_1979]

Subtopic: keyboard vs. menus up

Quote: in Etude can use menus or keyboard alternatives [goodM6_1981]

Subtopic: tab vs. menu up

Quote: tabs are an efficient way of jumping through a great variety of information quickly; better than submenus [seymJ3_1994]

Subtopic: point-and-click vs. menu up

Quote: point-and-click is 90% of a user's interaction with KMS; twice as fast as menu selection [akscRM7_1988a]

Related up

Topic: abbreviated input
Topic: keystroke shortcuts as a UserInterface
Topic: choice points for a user interface
Topic: command-line as a UserInterface
Topic: dial as a user interface
Topic: ease of learning
Topic: fisheye views in the user interface
Topic: gestural interfaces and marker menus
Topic: hypertext nodes made of names
Topic: implementation of user interfaces
Topic: information retrieval by following links
Topic: mouse as the user interface
Topic: mouse buttons
Topic: prompted input
Topic: property sheets for objects
Topic: training wheels for the user interface

Subtopics up

abbreviated menu items
command lists
context menu
contextual menu
dynamic menus
hierarchical menu
keyboard vs. menus
Macintosh-style menus
menu border
point-and-click vs. menu
Smalltalk menus
standard menu
survey
tab vs. menu
users prefer menus -- self-documenting
window palettes vs. menus

Updated barberCB 3/06
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