QuoteRef: smitDC4_1982

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electronic mail
graphical user interface
information retrieval
testing and evaluating user interfaces
command-line as a UserInterface
current position in a user interface; cursor
database record
desktop metaphor for user interfaces
direct engagement and theater in a user interface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
direct manipulation for a UserInterface
dragging with a mouse
ease of use
ease of use
ease of use
editor as the UserInterface
forms as a UserInterface
forms as a UserInterface
forms as a UserInterface
icons for a user interface
identifying the user interface with the system
information retrieval by searching
information retrieval with queries
keyboard design
keystroke-level model for user interface evaluation
keystroke-level model for user interface evaluation
mail databases
mental models, consistency, and interface metaphors
mental models, consistency, and interface metaphors
menus for a UserInterface
modes in a user interface
modes in a user interface
mouse buttons
multiple views for a user interface
personal information
problem of screen size
problems with usability testing
property sheets for objects
property sheets for objects
property sheets for objects
property sheets for objects
property sheets for objects
raster graphics
selecting text with a mouse
selecting with a mouse
selecting with a mouse
text editing
uniform reference to data
user interface design
user interface design
user-centered design
user-defined languages
using icons to represent objects in a user interface
using icons to represent objects in a user interface
using icons to represent objects in a user interface
word processing

actual use
avoid keyboard modifiers
bitmap display
context-dependent modes -- e.g., shift key
context-sensitive cursor
create vs. copy
data record model
desirable UI properties
desktop metaphor
displaying information
e-mail encourages communication
easy to use, complicated systems
edit properties
editor as UI
engineering prototype
English commands
filtered views
Fitts' law
formulas and cell definition
icon as universal UI
icon vs. name
inserting text with selection
mail as database
mental model of interactive systems
move command
nouns and verbs
one task -- one window
personal information system
positioning of icons
problems with keystroke model
progressive disclosure
property sheet defines object
query by example
search using filters -- multiple views
select + command
select and edit
select-move, noun-verb
speed of mouse pointing
speed of use
standard menu
Star commands
task analysis
task analysis, use case
two vs. three buttons
UI as reality
uniform reference to local and remote resources
use dialogs and forms to interact with a tool
user customization
user interface mode
user-centered design
visibile world and actions
visible interface


Smith, D.C., Irby, C., Kimball, R., Verplank, B., Harslem, E., "Designing the Star User Interface," Byte, 7.4:242-282, April 1982

Quotes up

246 ;;Quote: can point with a mouse as fast as with a finger; a Fitts's law device
244 ;;Quote: Star and Alto use a bit-mapped display
248 ;;Quote: use task analysis for user interface design; who are the users, what information do they use, and what methods
248 ;;Quote: after task analysis, build a new task environment for the user for the same goals
248 ;;Quote: Star based on the Alto; 1000 Alto's were built over a period of 8 years; one of largest prototyping efforts
248 ;;Quote: Star emphasized the easy concepts of concrete, visible, copying, choosing, recognizing, editing, interactive; and avoided their opposites
248 ;;Quote: the conceptual model of a system enables the user to understand and interact with the system
252 ;;Quote: documents should be more than file names; represent by icons, select with a mouse
252 ;;Quote: with icons, moving a document is the same as moving a piece of paper to a file
252 ;;Quote: the user's conceptual model is important because it changes the system's functionality
254 ;;Quote: in an office everything arrives by mail, so in Star messages are documents and documents are mailed
256 ;;Quote: Star's user interface resembles a desktop
256 ;;Quote: Star's desktop is an array of 154 squares; icons are centered in squares
258 ;;Quote: a record file is a collection of fields; can display records in a table or as a form with fields; query by example
258 ;;Quote: a well-designed system makes everything relevant to a task visible on the screen; aids memory
260 ;;Quote: when everything is visible, the display becomes reality, the user model; actions understood by visual effects; can conduct experiments
260 ;;Quote: Star eliminates the CODE key since it leads to invisible resources
262 ;;Quote: every key and command has a visual response; otherwise user model is destroyed
262 ;;Quote: most Star objects described by a property sheet; a form that can be displayed and modified
262 ;;Quote: property sheets support progressive disclosure by hiding complexity until needed
262 ;;Quote: the screen shows the visible characteristics of an object while a property sheet gives its underlying structure
264 ;;Quote: command parameters by an option sheet (a form); reduces memory requirements
264 ;;Quote: WYSIWYG is 'what you see is what you get' for document creation; eliminates iterations required with formatters
268 ;;Quote: Star has universally applicable commands: move, copy, delete, show/copy properties, again, undo, and help
268 ;;Quote: MOVE (dragging) is the most powerful command in Star; move graphics, formulas, files, mail, printing
268 ;;Quote: in Star you set margins by selecting a paragraph and changing its MARGINS property
268 ;;Quote: a user interface should be consistent; e.g., always select with the left mouse button
268 ;;Quote: consistency is hard to achieve in a user interface; use common paradigms where possible, e.g., editing
270 ;;Quote: in Star, editing is a common paradigm; used for managing files, working environment (desktop), and properties
272 ;;Quote: Star's file drawers and mail in-baskets are also databases; can be queried
272 ;;Quote: with Star, you create by copying; easier to modify than to create, e.g., icons and graphics
274 ;;Quote: all data icons treated uniformly; moving/mailing/etc. documents, folders, and record files
274 ;;Quote: simple things should be simple; complex things should be possible
276 ;;Quote: Star uses a two button mouse instead of three; increased consistency and simpler semantics
276 ;;Quote: critical parts of a system should be tested on users
276 ;;Quote: minimizing the number of keystrokes may not make a system easy to use; want overall simplicity
276 ;;Quote: a mode is a user interface state for interpreting operator input; not associated with an object
276 ;;Quote: Star commands specify the object and then invoke the command; noun-verb
276 ;;Quote: use noun-verb commands since have more judgment in selecting an object and can change selection
276 ;;Quote: insert text in Star by making a selection and begin typing
278 ;;Quote: to move an object in Star, select it, push the MOVE key, and then select the destination
278 ;;Quote: Star modes (e.g., for moving) work because Star posts a message, changes the cursor shape, and restricts the actions
278 ;;Quote: can initialize a blank document with a formatting layout, fixed text, graphics, and fields; acts as a form
278 ;;Quote: can set up 'transfer sheets' that contain useful graphics symbols
280 ;;Quote: can define multiple views of a record file; specify a filter, a sort order, and a formatting document
280 ;;Quote: fields in a Star record file displayed via a formatting document whose names correspond to fields; no inherent external representation
280 ;;Quote: use Star's CUStomer Programming Language (CUSP) to write computation rules for fields

Collected barberCB 4/82
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