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Group: information

topic root > Group: computer science


--related--
computer science
data
data type
database
database model
digital communication
document preparation
hypertext
naming
natural language
philosophy
relationship between brain and behavior
-
classification
declarative vs. procedural representation
fundamental concepts such as type, attributes, relationships are all the same
hypertext as external memory
hypertext nodes
information hiding
information management
knowledge representation
meaning by use
nested relations
personal information
problem of information overload
relational database
reliable communication
shared information for collaborative work
symbolic representation
using a computer as a communication/information medium
what is a computer
what is a number
what is truth

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Summary

What is information, particularly digital information? It is more than numbers and less than knowledge, wisdom, or truth. Digital information is equivalent to numbers. Facts are close. They are relevant. Facts are like the elements of information.

Information may be like ether, a concept without content. (cbb 11/07)

Group members up

Group: information retrieval
Group: relationship information
-
Topic: attribute-value pairs as information
Topic: context
Topic: copyright
Topic: definition by example
Topic: deletion of information
Topic: entropy
Topic: facts as relationships between entities
Topic: information as a hint
Topic: information as facts
Topic: information as knowledge
Topic: knowledge as interrelated facts
Topic: metadata
Topic: non-hierarchical classification and multiple classification
Topic: problem of classifying information
Topic: semi-structured text
Topic: text markup and structured text
Topic: translation of data
Subtopic: information as use up

Quote: we search for information that we can use; neither words nor information really has determinate meaning apart from their usage [blaiD_2006]

Subtopic: information as its effect up

Quote: message-passing semantics: meaning of a message depends on its effect on subsequent behavior [hewiC4_1985]
Quote: information is difference that makes a difference; meaning depends on relations with other parts of the world [bateG_1979]
Quote: information is what guides people's actions; not what a computer processes [holtAW_1979]
Quote: relevance is being potentially helpful to a user in the resolution of a need [greeR9_1995]
Quote: the purpose of information is making decisions between possible actions [holtAW_1997]
Quote: information is that kind of resource which is used to resolve conflicts [petrCA10_1979]

Subtopic: information by communication up

Quote: information in its ordinary sense means something that is communicated by conscious, intentional agents via symbols that have an agreed interpretation [raatP_1998]
Quote: information is not directly from physical reality; only a sentence reporting the observation can convey information [raatP_1998]

Subtopic: information as public property up

Quote: knowledge and information are essentially social; technology has a supporting role; e.g., a thermometer measures temperature [tuomI3_1999]
Quote: information is a kind of public property that can be stored and shared for reuse in different ways by many people [blaiAM_2010]
Quote: information is discrete and small-sized items; removed from their original context; morsels ready to be rearticulated [blaiAM_2010]
Quote: from the beginning, reference books stored, sorted, selected, and summarized information [blaiAM_2010]

Subtopic: information as physical characteristics up

Quote: define information by physical characteristics; the rate of transmission is limited by energy considerations [hartRV7_1928]
Quote: rate of information transmission is proportional to the width of frequency-range times time delta [hartRV7_1928]
Quote: the information capacity of the motor system can be inferred from the statistical variability of successive, uniform responses [fittPM6_1954]

Subtopic: information takes space up

Quote: we need to start over with software; no concept of pointer in the real world; information takes space, exists over time at a location [seibP_2009]

Subtopic: information name and memory location up

Quote: a memory address serves two functions: a name of information for computation, and a location in physical main memory [dennJB10_1965]

Subtopic: information as bits up

Quote: entropy is the measure of information; the only continuous property that increases with more choices, and decomposition is a weighted sum [shanCE7_1948]
Quote: use logarithm to measure information; parameters tend to vary linearly with the logarithm of the number of possibilities; e.g., two punched cards vs. one [shanCE7_1948]
Quote: a bit is a binary digit; for measuring information [shanCE7_1948]
Quote: information is the logarithm of the number of possible symbol sequences [hartRV7_1928]
Quote: information capacity by probability of distinguishing symbols; ignore their interpretion [hartRV7_1928]

Subtopic: information as number up

Note: information is numbers, what everyone can agree on; the problem is a vivid language for numbers [cbb_1990 OK]

Subtopic: data vs. information up

Quote: data requires further processing to be meaningful, while knowledge implies an individual knower [blaiAM_2010]
Quote: information exists for humans, not machines; machines process symbols, humans assign meaning to the symbols [dennPJ3_1995]
Quote: some authors equate signs with information, but lose the meaning of that information [kentW_1978]
Quote: communication requires a predefined mapping of representations into information [richG9_1975]
Quote: distinguish information and data; e.g., an employee's salary is data that doesn't need a separate entry; access by a field [cbb_1980 OK]
Quote: resemblance between a database's contents and the original information depends on a common understanding of what references mean [kentW_1978]
Quote: the target of most information can be replaced by any of the things involved in the information; e.g., employees in a department [kentW1_1985]
Quote: information is the values within the outcome of a process; a variable has multiple values, without changing the type of system [loseRM3_1997]
Quote: INFORMATION is relative to organized activity; information depends on the human organization that uses it [holtAW_1997]

Subtopic: information as assertion or fact up

Quote: information associated with a representative must be asserted explicitly [kentW_1978]
Quote: information used as "instruction" in 14th century and "knowledge concerning some particular fact" in 15th century [blaiAM_2010]
Quote: information is news or facts that has value to a recipient [loseRM3_1997]
Quote: information must be new, true, and about something; not the messenger nor the message itself [loseRM3_1997]

Subtopic: information as structured up

Quote: a virtual document is active, structured information for communication; applications are tools; e.g., Illustrator format [warnJE6_1992]
Quote: with densely packed information, a random change to a meaningful message is meaningful [chaiGJ_2001]

Subtopic: information as tool, location, type up

Quote: cataloged information scraps by tool (e..g, email, calendar), location (computer desktop, "Miscellaneous" folder), and type (reminder, how-to) [bernM9_2008]

Subtopic: information algebra up

Quote: information algebra deals with sets of points in a space; each entity has exactly one datum point in a given property space; e.g., (employee number, hourly payrate) [bosaR4_1962]

Subtopic: information needs up

Quote: modified diary study of how people search for information; incremental steps instead of keyword search; participants navigated to their target with small, local steps using their contextual knowledge [teevJ4_2004]
Quote: comprehensive study of daily information needs over a 3-month period; contextual Experience Sampling Method, snippet-based diary, and online diary [churK2_2014]
Quote: most information needs occurred at home; one third in a mobile context [churK2_2014]
Quote: most information needs were satisfied by the Internet; 20% by asking a person, 2% by books, manuals, or references [churK2_2014]
Quote: a third of information needs were not satisfied and were not retried later [churK2_2014]

Subtopic: informatics up

Quote: Informatics is the science of information aspects of natural and societal phenomena [nygaK10_1986]
Quote: informatics is the science of information aspects of processes and phenomena [nygaK_1981]

Subtopic: key-value vs. row-column up

Quote: key-value pairs is too limiting; Bigtable's row and column keys supports sparse, semi-structured data with an effecient, flat-file representation [chanF6_2008]

Subtopic: problems with information up

Quote: perhaps information for computer scientists is like ether was for physicists in the last century [dennPJ3_1995]
Quote: "important" is subjective and a continuous scale; different things are important to different people in different contexts at different times [kentW1_1985]
Quote: the regulator paradox--the task is to eliminate variation, but variation is the source of needed information; e.g., testing icy roads [weinGM_1979]
Quote: information may be too ambiguous and subjective to be embodied in a computer [kentW_1978]
Quote: often notions less well understood than information are used for its explanation, e.g., knowledge, concept, idea, meaning [stamRK7_1985]

Related up

Group: data
Group: data type
Group: database
Group: database model
Group: digital communication
Group: document preparation
Group: hypertext
Group: naming
Group: natural language
Group: philosophy
Group: relationship between brain and behavior
-
Topic: classification
Topic: declarative vs. procedural representation
Topic: fundamental concepts such as type, attributes, relationships are all the same
Topic: hypertext as external memory
Topic: hypertext nodes
Topic: information hiding
Topic: information management
Topic: knowledge representation
Topic: meaning by use
Topic: nested relations
Topic: personal information
Topic: problem of information overload
Topic: relational database
Topic: reliable communication
Topic: shared information for collaborative work
Topic: symbolic representation
Topic: using a computer as a communication/information medium
Topic: what is a computer
Topic: what is a number
Topic: what is truth

Subtopics up

data vs. information
informatics
information algebra
information as assertion or fact
information as bits
information as its effect
information as number
information as physical characteristics
information as public property
information as structured
information as tool, location, type
information as use
information by communication
information name and memory location
information needs
information takes space
key-value vs. row-column
problems with information

Updated barberCB 6/05
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